Development and impact of eugenics
After the end of the civil war, the economies of major countries was ruined by the war and which also brought about an influx of immigrants form the eastern and southern Europe. The uncertainty within the economy brought about social inequalities among the various segments in the society. Social Darwinism which uses the concept of natural selection from Charles Darwin was used to explain the inequalities experienced in the society. This concept explains that within a competitive environment, only the strongest with desirable qualities’ will survive while the weak ones are wiped out. In relation to social inequality, the wealthy individuals are best placed to survive through the hard economic times than the poor. This will result to the wealthy producing more offspring with similar genes and less offspring from the poor (Davenport, 2009, 27). However, during this time, those born from a poor background were increasing and those from the wealthy families were declining. In order to stop this trend, the government chose to utilize scientific management known as progressivism which relied on the science to control birth hence the development of social engineering or Eugenics. Eugenics has protected children from being brought up by mentally handicapped parents, decreased in sex offenses cases and it prevents racial deterioration.
He is widely known for his famous theory of Natural selection where evolutionary changes occur through production variation in each generation. Individuals with desirable and survival traits/qualities, increases their survival chances hence are able to reproduce offspring and pass on their genetic make up to them while those without soon become extinct. The evolution theory is the foundation of biology and provides a unifying explanation of the diversity of life.
His passion for studying the variations in human ability led him to writing his book, Hereditary Genius (1869) in which he was able to prove that success was as a result of superior qualities that were passed down to offspring through hereditary. He went further ahead and proved that human mental abilities and personal trait was inherited. His findings formed the basis of the eugenics movement which called for improving the biological make-up of the human beings through the use of selective parenthood (Davenport, 2009, 69). He made contribution to the field of statistics and psychology where he was able to quantify the passing down of qualities, traits and abilities through generation. He came up with a statistical notion of correlation that led to the understanding of how generations were related to each other.
He is regarded as the second founding father of sociology. He was able to come up with a hypothesis that likens the society with a biological organism. He compared the visible growth in the society and the organism to that of a child growing up to become a man/woman and a small community to a city. He noted that both the society and the organism grow in size and which results to complexity of the structure. The complexity of the structure brings about the interdependence of the parts and differentiations of functions. He also pointed out the difference between the organism and the society in that an organism consciousness is concentrated on small part of the aggregate while the society’s consciousness is diffused. The parts of an organism are bound and fixed together while in the society; the parts are separate and dispersed.
The Zeitgeist movement was started in 1970 and it aims at distributing resources with the vision of ensuring an improved society through a resourced based economy rather than a monetary economy. It aims at educating and informing people that the world’s resources should be considered as equal inheritance for everyone in the world. The zeitgeist movement contribution is that it tries to eliminate inequality in the society and ensure everybody in the society both the weak and the strong are able to attain better living standard. It indirectly supports or increases the survival chances of everyone regardless of their genetic composition.
Lewis Terman was the man behind this form of intelligence test. Through it, he made it possible to group individuals along continuum of ability levels (Davenport, 2009, 103). He believed that through the intelligence test, it would be easy to predict achievement/success patterns. However, Binet who was another scientist believed that IQ test served as a measure of the upper bound of mankind ability through the combination of both biological and environmental factors. Terman’s IQ test is used within the cooperate world to determine the suitable jobs for the diverse range of people.